Changsha is the capital city of the province of Hunan. Hunan Province is situated to the south of Lake Dongtine and is located in the middle of the River Yangtze. Hunan shares borders with Chongqing, Jiangxi Province, Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Guangxi and the Province of Guizhou.
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History of Hunan Province
Until 1910, the province of Hunan was comparatively quite, but when the Qing Dynasty collapsed, it led to the Communist’s Autumn Harvest revolution that started with Mao Zedong in the year 1927.
Mao Zedong established a brief Hunan Soviet State in 1927 and they maintained a guerilla army in the mountain’s across the Hunan soviet state till 1934.
The famous Long March to bases in Shaanxi Provincestarted under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang. Once the communist army departed, the second Sino Japanese war was fought by the KMT army against the Japanese.
Changsha the capital of Hunan Province fell in 1944.
After the Chinese Civil war the Communists returned to power in 1949.
After the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, Hunan Province took time to adopt the reforms implemented by the former paramount leader of Deng Xiaoping. From 1966 to 1976, the province of Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution.
- Changsha – capital of Hunan.
- Yueyang – famous for Yueyang Tower (岳阳楼). Other attractions include smaller ancient towns and a national park in pingjiang.
- Hengyang – Second largest city in Hunan and home of Mount Heng (Nanyue mountain).
- Huaihua – important railway center in western Hunan. Several ancient towns belonging to ethnic minorities like the Dong and Miao.
- Shaoyang – a very beautiful city of southwest Hunan with mountainous areas which are home to several ethnic minorities like Miao and Yao.
- Zhuzhou – an important industrial city and one of the five busiest railway centers in Mainland China.
- Fenghuang – A beautiful historic town close by the River Tuo, near the city of Jishou.
- Changde – A city bordering the west side of Dongting Lake.
- Zhangjiajie – Home of the Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, Tianmen Mountain and Wulingyuan.
- Shaoshan – Birthplace of Mao Zedong, and hub of Communist Party pilgrimage.
- Tianmen Mountain (Tianmenshan) – a scenic and historic mountain with stunning views
- Wulingyuan – UNESCO World heritage. National GeoPark. Sandstone Peak Forest.
- Mount Heng – (also called Nan Yue) one of the five sacred Taoist mountains of China. Nan Yue Temple lies in the foothills of the mountain.
- Meishan Dragon Palace – one of the most beautiful karst caves in China. There’s an area of terrace named Ziquejie in the vicinity.
- Dongting Lake – the second biggest freshwater lake in China.
- Yueyang pavilion – a famous pavilion.
- Dehang – a small village, home to the Miao minority, with nice hiking opportunities.
- The Site of Laosicheng Tusi Domain, one of three sites of the Tusi chiefs listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List
- Zhangguying village. Small village from the Ming Dynasty.
- Tongdao Dong autonomous county
Geography of Hunan Province
Hunan Province is 500km away from the Guangdong’s capital city of Guangzhou, around 950km from the municipality of Shanghai and almost 1200km from the municipality and China’s capital city of Beijing.
The largest freshwater lake in the province of Hunan is “Lake Dongting”.
Climate of Hunan
Hunan Province has a subtropical climate. The Average temperature during the month of January is 3-8o Celsius and 27-30o Celsius during the month of July.
Local Economy of Hunan Province
Along with rice, the Province of Hunan also cultivates tea.
The per capita income of Hunan Province in the year 2007 was 14,405 yuan and 914.5 billion yuan was the nominal GDP for 2007.
Touristic places to visit in Hunan Province
Hunan Province has so many touristic attractions to explore. Wulingyuan is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Yueyang Pagoda in Yueyang, Hengshan Pagoda in Hengyang and the Shaoshan Chong is the birthplace of Mao Zedong.
Hubei is a Central Chinese province. The name is derived from ‘Hu’ meaning lake and ‘Bei’ meaning North. So this is the province north of the Dongting Lake; the province south of the lake is Hunan.
Much of the eastern Hubei is the densely populated, heavily farmed flatland (the Jianghan Plain) along and between the Yangtze (a.k.a. Changjiang) and the Han River. This is where the province’s main metropolic, Wuhan is. The Jianghan Plain is surrounded by low mountain, such as Dabie Shan in the northeast (along the border with Henan and Anhui) and Mufu Shan in the southeast (along the border with Jiangxi).
The west of the province is mountainous, the peaks of Wudangshan and Shennongjia giving you a “preview” of the great mountain systems found in the provinces farther west (Chongqing, Sichuan).
During the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn, and Warring States periods of the ancient Chinese history, the state of Chu (ca. 1030 BCE–223 BCE) included most of today’s Hubei, and the word “Chu” (楚) still appears in the name of the local newspapers, companies, and the like. When China was first unified by the First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, Chu was absorbed within the Qin, and late Han Empire.
As the Han Empire broke up in the 2nd century CE, the territory of today’s Hubei became the area of contact of the Three Kingdoms (San Guo) into which the empire split. Many famous battles of the Three Kingdoms period took place within today’s Hubei. Many cities still retain parts of the history of this time, such as Jingzhou which boasts a wonderfully intact city wall dating back to this time.
Located astride the Yangtze River in the very center of the traditional Chinese territory, Hubei was part of the core of both the Ming and Qing Empire. During some centuries it was united with Hunan into a super-province called Huguang. A cadet branch of the Ming Dynasty’s ruling Zhu family was ensconced in Wuchang (part of today’s Wuhan); three stone turtles (bixi) still stand guard over their tombs at Longquanshan.
In 1911, the Wuchang Uprising in the provincial capital Wuchang (part of today’s Wuhan) started the Xinhai Revolution, which soon brought the 250-plus-year-old Qing Empire to the end and ushered the Republic of China.
Since the late 19th century, mineral-rich eastern Hubei became one the centers of China’s new mining and metal-working industries. In 1927, the three cities at the confluence of the Yangtze and the Han River – the old provincial capital Wuchang, the industrial Hanyang, and the commercial Hankou, officially merged into the new city of Wuhan, whose name combined syllables from the names of the three old cities. However, it wasn’t until several decades later that the first bridge across Yangtze finally established a fixed link between Wuchang and the two other boroughs of the provincial capital.