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Tony Chung : First Arrests under new Security Law in Hong Kong

The former leader of a student group in Hong Kong has been arrested – 19-year-old Tony Chung is accused of attempting to separate Hong Kong from China.

For the first time several activists in Hong Kong have been arrested under the controversial new security law according to media reports. Former student leader Tony Chung and three of his fellow campaigners have been detained on charges of seeking independence from China, according to local media reports.

19-year-old Chung was arrested at home by police officers from China.

All those arrested are between 16 and 21 years old.

In a television report, former fellow campaigners from Chung reported that the police had taken trash from his home.

The new law passed in June, which has been heavily criticized in western countries, punishes separatism, terrorism and cooperation with a foreign powers.

It also allows Chinese security forces to be deployed in the former British crown colony. Hong Kong has been part of China again since 1997 , but is managed according to the “one country, two systems” principle with its own rules for business and politics.

Critics now fear an end to this principle, that granted citizens more rights than in mainland China.

Great Britain and its Anglo-Saxon partners the US, Canada and New Zealand have ended their extradition agreements with Hong Kong because of the security law. The United States  imposed sanctions on China . China responded with countermeasures .

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Why does Beijing Risk Hong Kong’s Future as a Global Financial Center?

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The new security law which punishes criticism of Beijing, is a threat to the financial center and the beginning of the end of globalization as we know it.

Questions to Heribert Dieter, visiting professor in Hong Kong.

Deutsche Welle: Mr. Dieter, you are currently in Berlin, and if everything goes according to your plan, you will continue your visiting professorship in Hong Kong in September. What is the mood like among your colleagues there?

Heribert Dieter: Bad. Some continue as before without worrying about the security law but it remains to be seen whether this is possible but others are very depressed and find that a totalitarian regime has come to them overnight.

How important is the Hong Kong financial center for China?

Hong Kong is the only financial center in the People’s Republic of China that has no restrictions on the movement of capital. That means foreign and Chinese capital can be be transferred in and out of Hong Kong without any restrictions. In Hong Kong, companies can issue bonds denominated in Euros, Dollars or Yen to meet their financing needs.

If this were no longer possible, Chinese companies would have to borrow in the local currency, the Yuan. This has serious disadvantages as the yuan is not freely convertible, so you can’t buy companies in an OECD country with Chinese Yuan. In addition, the interest rate level for loans in Yuan is much higher than for loans in US Dollars, Euros or  the Japanese Yen.

On top of that, private companies in mainland China have been marginalized as borrowers during the era of President Xi Jinping. Almost 90 percent of the new loans go to state-owned companies and this is fatal for the Chinese economy, because private companies in particular are innovative and productive and bring the country forward economically. So there is every indication that the Hong Kong financial center is essential for mainland China in its current form.

Germany Kuka robot at the Porsche plant in Leipzig (picture alliance / dpa / J. Woitas)Kuka robots at the Porsche plant in Leipzig. The takeover of Kuka by Midea from China in 2016 caused a stir in Germany

In recent years, Chinese companies have also been shopping in Germany and have taken over many companies. Wouldn’t that be possible without the Hong Kong financial center?

Such acquisitions would at least be extremely difficult because of the lack of funds. Over the past few years we have seen Chinese companies with full bags of money, buying companies and pay prices that were simply astronomical for competitors from OECD countries. Without Hong Kong, they would have to get the money elsewhere but who in New York, London or Frankfurt would provide companies from mainland China with such funds?

Conversely, Hong Kong is also important for western companies and banks. What is the meaning here?

That is the other side of the coin. The western banks can serve the Chinese market from there without having to subject their employees to the disadvantageous living conditions in mainland China. Hong Kong was the best of both worlds: gateway to the world from the perspective of Chinese companies, and gateway to China for western companies. All of this is now endangered by the Security Act because it makes working conditions in banks and companies significantly more difficult.

The law is – well aware – very vague. Basically, it criminalizes everyone who, according to the authorities, is too critical of the leadership. Can this already affect the work of financial analysts in Hong Kong that for example, pass a negative judgment on a state company?

This is exactly the risk for bank employees who have to evaluate the Chinese economy. They run the risk of being charged with subversive activities and in the worst case, being put in prison. At the moment it is not clear how the government will handle this but the law does allow it. From Beijing’s point of view, this is what makes the law so appealing: you do not specify exactly what is punishable.

This also applies to bank employees which also means that a sensible assessment of the Chinese economy can no longer take place if you are no longer allowed to express yourself critically, but have to tune to the cheering messages of the Communist Party in Beijing.

Heribert Dieter Economic Expert Science and Politics FoundationThis year guest professor at Hong Kong University: Heribert Dieter from the Berlin Science and Politics Foundation

Conversely, there have already been reports that western banks in Hong Kong are separating from customers who are too critical of Beijing.

The new law affects banks directly. The Asia chief of the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) welcomed the law before he even knew it in detail and university presidents did the same, but it is clear that the banks have to implement what constitutes the law which means that regime critics can no longer have a bank  account with HSBC.

These are very dangerous developments that many people did not expect and they are a major threat to the future of Hong Kong as an international financial center.

Nevertheless, banks are reluctant to criticize and Western financial institutions are unlikely to voluntarily withdraw from Hong Kong but what would happen if they had to withdraw, for example under sanctions?

There are already indications that banks are voluntarily withdrawing from Hong Kong. Deutsche Bank’s new Asia chief takes office in September and traditionally, this function was based in Hong Kong. That has now changed and the new Asia chief has his office in Singapore. These are the first indications that there may be a migration from Hong Kong as they want to be able to speak freely and openly with a beer at a pub in the evening.

So far they could do this in Hong Kong, but not now anymore. They also have families who value uncensored internet which also might get restricted in Hong Kong and the big winners will be Singapore or Tokyo,

Hong Kong Building of the Bank of China, Cheung Kong Center and HSBC (AFP / Getty Images / M. Clarke)Building of the Legislative Council, the Hong Kong Parliament (center). Top managers at Bank HSBC (right) welcomed the security law before it was passed

The conflict between the United States and China continues to worsen and how likely do you think sanctions will be put toward Hong Kong’s financial sector?

The U.S. government is ready to get tough on China. Since July 1, the United States has gradually restricted the special status that Hong Kong has enjoyed since 1997. What would happen if the US government now prohibited Hong Kong from freely trading the US dollar? This is certainly something that is currently being discussed in Washington, however this would also hit US companies hard.

Hong Kong is so attractive as a financial center because the local currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is more or less firmly linked to the US dollar. This means that there is almost no exchange rate risk for companies and players in the financial markets and switching to the Chinese Yuan would make everything difficult and expensive.

Combo picture Xi Jinping and Deng Xiao PingChina’s economic opening began under Deng Xiaoping (right). What is Xi Jinping’s course?

Given the enormous importance of the financial center for Beijing, which you have just described, why is the Chinese government putting all this at risk by enforcing this security law in Hong Kong?

That is one of the most difficult questions and I think about it a lot. Why is the government in Beijing currently ready to seek conflict with almost all actors from Australia to India, the United States and even at some point  to the European Union.

This only makes sense if China is decoupling from the world and a central strategy of the Communist Party. China might retreat to its own territory, as was mostly the case in 5000 years of Chinese history. The opening of the country that Deng Xiaoping initiated in the late 1970s would be the exception.

But that’s just a guess. There is no document to prove this but the policy actually observed by the Chinese government suggests this interpretation.

That would be the end of globalization as we know it.

It would be the end of globalization as we have known it so far, but of course it would not be the end of globalization. Globalization is changing anyway, not only because of Xi Jinping, but because China has become too expensive as a production location. The conflicts between the United States and China and between China and the rest of the world are fueling these tendencies. But in my opinion, the international division of labor has too many advantages to be given up entirely. Globalization will change, but it will not end, but China will no longer play the role it has played in the past 20 to 30 years.

As you just said, the EU is now also more critical of China, but nevertheless the EU has been very reluctant to criticize the new Hong Kong Security Law too much?

Absolutely, the EU is holding back too much. A treaty was broken here, the treaty between Great Britain and the People’s Republic of China from 1984. The German government is particularly to be criticized and Chancellor Merkel is looking for close cooperation with this totalitarian communist regime.

Germany need to react much more critically to the violation of international law and other European countries are much more further, such as Great Britain or France. Germany is now exporting more goods to China than the other Top eight EU countries combined, so the reluctance can be explained.

Against the background of German history, I think it is particularly important that we do not deal with dictatorships and communist regimes in a conservative manner and we should make it clear that this is a breach of international law,

Heribert Dieter is a researcher at the Berlin Science and Politics Foundation (SWP) with a focus on global governance as well as development, trade and financial policy. He is currently a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong.

The interview was conducted by Andreas Becker.

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Diplomatic Timeline of the South China Sea from 1932 to 2020

“习近平忘了问台湾”是否愿统一 美议员将提案若台遭入侵授权总统动武

The South China Sea, called the “South China Sea” in China, is a large sea area south of China, east of Vietnam, west of the Philippines, north of Indonesia, and southeast of Malaysia. It extends to the Taiwan Strait in the northeast, and the Singapore Strait and the Strait of Malacca in the southwest.

The total area is about 3.5 million square kilometers, belonging to the Pacific Ocean. There are many islands and reefs in the South China Sea, and there are no indigenous people on the islands.

The sea area is rich in fishery resources and is believed to be rich in submarine oil and natural gas. China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan have all put forward all or part of the sovereignty claims on the islands in the South China Sea. Brunei put forward the requirement of exclusive economic zone. The parties have different names for the islands. The Spratly Islands are called “Nansha Islands” in China, and “Changsha Islands” in Vietnam, and other countries have their own names. The Paracel Islands are called the “Parcel Islands” in China and the “Huangsha Islands” in Vietnam. China and Vietnam have sovereignty disputes over this. Sovereignty disputes evolved into military conflicts.

2017

On July 2, the USS “Stansom” sailed within 12 nautical miles of the Zhongjian Island claimed by China in the South China Sea. China strongly protested this. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang said that China dispatched warships and fighter jets to the waters and stated that US actions were “serious political and military provocations” and that such actions “seriously violated China’s sovereignty and threatened China’s security.”

On July 1, the United States and the Philippines conducted a four-day patrol in the Sulu Sea, where pirate attacks on merchant ships frequently occur in the southern Philippines.

On June 28, the commander of the US Pacific Command and Admiral Harris urged China to stop militarizing the disputed islands and reefs in the South China Sea in a speech to the Australian Strategic Policy Center in Brisbane, Australia.

On June 28, China’s state media Xinhua News Agency reported that China’s first 10,000-ton destroyer was launched at the Shanghai Jiangnan Shipyard.

In June, the quasi-aircraft carrier “Hatsuun” of Japan sailed to the waters near the “Nine-dash line” in the South China Sea advocated by China, during which it invited defense officials from 10 ASEAN countries, including Singapore, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as Japanese media and some Western media reporters. Interview with “Izumo” public training in the South China Sea for 5 days.

On June 25, the Liaoning aircraft carrier formation of the Chinese Navy left the Qingdao base and went south to conduct cross-sea training. The Liaoning aircraft carrier formation includes guided missile destroyers Jinan and Yinchuan, guided missile frigates Yantai, and several J-15 carrier-based fighters.

On June 15th, Admiral Scott Swift, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, stated in China that US naval vessels will conduct more cruises in the South China Sea this year. When he made the above remarks, the USS “Steret” guided missile destroyer was currently visiting Zhanjiang, Guangdong.

On June 12, the guided-missile destroyer “Steret” of the US Navy’s Third Fleet arrived at the Zhanjiang Military Port where the headquarters of the South China Sea Fleet of the Chinese Navy is located.

On June 8, two U.S. B-1B strategic bombers flew into the China Sea in Vietnam and conducted a joint exercise with the USS Strett guided-missile destroyer (DDG104).

On June 6, the U.S. Department of Defense released the 2017 China Military Power Annual Report. According to the report, China is building hangars for fighter jets, fixed weapon locations, barracks, administrative buildings, and communication equipment on Crossfire Reef (called Yongshu Reef in China), Zhubi Reef and Mischief Reef, each of which is being built. With an airstrip above 2,600 meters, once these facilities are completed, China can deploy up to three regiments in the Spratly Islands.

On June 3, US Secretary of Defense Mattis spoke of the South China Sea at the annual security forum in Singapore, saying that China’s militarization of artificial islands and reefs in the South China Sea is unacceptable in disregard of international order.

On May 31, US President Trump and Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc issued a joint statement after meeting in Washington, emphasizing the importance of freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.

On May 26, the US Coast Guard transferred the Hamilton-class high-endurance patrol ship “Morgan So” to the Vietnam Coast Guard in Honolulu, Hawaii.

On May 26, the US Department of Defense stated that a Navy P-3 Orion reconnaissance plane was intercepted by two Chinese J-10 fighter jets equipped with air-to-air missiles in the “international airspace” of the South China Sea. During this period, the operation of Chinese fighters was “unsafe and unprofessional.”

On May 24, the USS Dewey guided missile destroyer entered the waters within 12 nautical miles of the Mischief Reef that China claims in the South China Sea. This is the first free navigation operation of the U.S. Navy since President Trump took office on January 21 this year.

On May 23, the United States handed over six patrol boats to the Vietnam Coast Guard.

On May 18, the navies of India and Singapore began a seven-day military exercise in the South China Sea. This time India sent four advanced naval warships and long-range anti-submarine fighters to participate in the exercise, while Singapore sent several warships, Fokker 50 maritime patrol aircraft and F-16 fighter jets.

On May 18, Chinese state media Xinhua News Agency reported that China and members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations reached a framework agreement on the South China Sea Code of Conduct.

On May 17, the U.S. Pacific Theater Commander Harris said that whether it is in the South China Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, or the Mediterranean Sea, as long as permitted by international law, the United States should and is capable of conducting military activities such as free navigation.

On May 16, China’s official National Defense Times reported that China deployed anti-frogman rockets on Yongshu Reef.

On May 11, the Associated Press reported that Major General Raul Rosario, commander of the Western Military District of the Philippine Armed Forces, stated that a group of soldiers and advance supplies had arrived on Paigasa Island last week and were preparing to repair and lengthen the airstrip. And building docks.

From May 8th to 19th, the United States and the Philippines held a “Balikatan” exercise. The exercise avoided the disputed South China Sea and was held in the Pacific side of the Philippines’ main island, Luzon.

On May 6, Chinese navy ships arrived in Vietnam for a four-day visit.

On May 1, China announced that it would implement a three-month ban on fishing from 12:00 on May 1. This ban is 30 days longer than previous years and restricts more types of fishing activities. The fishing ban covers the entire South China Sea 12 degrees north of the equator.

On May 1, Philippine President Duterte visited the Chinese Navy guided-missile destroyer “Changchun” docked in his hometown of Davao City. “Changchun” and two other Chinese warships are on a three-day friendly visit to the Philippines.

On April 30, ASEAN softened its position on China on the issue of sovereignty in the South China Sea in its statement after the summit, and deleted sensitive words such as “reclamation of seas and islands and militarization” that may irritate China. In addition, the statement did not mention the Hague International Tribunal’s ruling on the South China Sea dispute.

On April 26, China’s first self-produced aircraft carrier was launched. This is China’s second aircraft carrier.

On April 21, Philippine Secretary of Defense Lorenzana boarded Zhongye Island and declared the sovereignty of the Philippines.

On April 20, the Philippine military stated that the Philippine authorities had ordered an investigation into reports of harassment of Philippine fishermen by “foreign ships” near Chinese man-made islands and reefs.

On April 11, the foreign ministers of the Group of Seven (G7) stated that the ruling of an international arbitration tribunal in The Hague last year on the Philippines v. China arbitration case should be used as the basis for the future settlement of the South China Sea dispute. The seven foreign ministers also issued a joint communiqué calling on all parties to implement the arbitration results.

On April 6, the Asian Maritime Transparency Initiative (AMTI) of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a US think tank, stated that on March 29, it would provide a report on Yongxing Island, Woody Island in the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea (called Xisha in China). A Chinese J-11 fighter jet can be seen on the satellite photo of the archipelago (Yongxing Island).

On April 6, Philippine President Duterte said that he had ordered troops to station in some uninhabited islands and reefs in the disputed waters of the South China Sea.

On March 31, the Acting Philippine Foreign Minister Enrique Manaro stated in an interview with the media that the Philippines rejected China’s repeated exploration of the “Benham Rise” (Benham Rise, also translated as “Benham Heights”). Sea area request. Manila said that only under the conditions that Philippine scientists can observe on-site can Chinese exploration be permitted.

On February 21, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not name by name to protest the US aircraft carrier fleet’s patrol in the South China Sea, saying it opposed threats to the sovereignty and security of coastal states under the banner of “freedom of navigation and overflight.”

On February 18, the USS Carl Vinson aircraft carrier battle group began routine patrols in the South China Sea.

On February 8, a U.S. Navy P-3 reconnaissance aircraft and an Air Police-200 early warning aircraft of the Chinese Army flew at close range in the international airspace near the Scarborough Shoal (Huangyan Island) in the South China Sea as the U.S. military said. However, the distance is less than 305 meters. The US called this encounter “extremely rare” and “unsafe.”

On February 7, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, who was visiting Australia, suggested that “American friends revisit the history of World War II” in response to the South China dispute. He said that as a result of victory in World War II, the “Cairo Declaration” and the “Potsdam Proclamation” clearly stipulated that Japan must return the stolen Chinese territory to China, including the Spratly Islands (Spratly Islands). He also said that in 1946, the Chinese government at the time recovered the Nansha Islands with the assistance of the United States.

On February 4, US Secretary of Defense Mattis who visited Japan said that China’s actions in the South China Sea undermined the trust of countries in the region, but he said, “ At present, we don’t think there is any need to take major military actions. ”

On January 27, Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop called on the United States to consolidate rather than weaken its leadership in the Indo-Pacific region at the US-Australia Indo-Pacific Cooperation Dialogue.

On January 24, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying responded to the relevant comments made by the White House spokesperson one day ago at a regular press conference: “The United States is not a party to the disputes in the South China Sea. We urge the United States to respect objective facts, and to be honest. Be cautious so as not to damage the peace and stability of the South China Sea.”

On January 23, the new White House spokesperson Sean Spicer said at the first regular White House press conference: “In the South China Sea in those areas of international waters and international activities, the United States will ensure that we protect our interests there. .”

On January 17, Philippine Secretary of Defense Lorenzana issued a statement saying that China’s militarization of South China’s islands and reefs is worrying. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said that China has the right to deploy “necessary and appropriate” defense facilities on its own territory. She also said that the efforts of relevant parties such as China and the Philippines are gradually cooling the situation in the South China Sea. Earlier, Philippine Foreign Minister Yasai said that the Philippines privately submitted a diplomatic note to China last month regarding China’s deployment of missiles in the Spratly Islands (Spratly Islands). This low-key handling is to avoid angering China.

On January 16, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who was visiting Vietnam, announced that Japan would provide six patrol boats to Vietnam. Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc said that the two countries share the same views on the importance of ensuring peace, security, and navigation and flight safety in the South China Sea, and promote peaceful means rather than the use of force or the threat of use of force to resolve disputes.

From January 12th to 15th, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam Nguyen Phu Trong visited China, during which the two parties issued a joint communiqu Declaration, and early reached the “Code of Conduct in the South China Sea.”

On January 12, the Philippines stated that it would postpone repairs and upgrades of islands and reefs and other marine features occupied by the country in the disputed area of ​​the South China Sea to avoid angering China.

On January 11, at the nomination review hearing held by the U.S. Senate, Secretary of State-designate Tillerson said that China’s reclamation and construction of islands and military installations in the South China Sea are similar to Russia’s annexation of Crimea. He also said that the United States must clearly tell China that first, it must stop island-building operations, and second, the United States will not allow China to use these islands.

On January 11, the Chinese government issued the “China’s Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation Policy” white paper, stating that “small and medium-sized countries do not have to and should not choose sides among large countries.”

On January 11, the Chinese aircraft carrier “Liaoning” entered the Taiwan Strait Southwest Air Defense Identification Zone on its way back.

On January 6, a senior Philippine official stated that the agenda of this year’s ASEAN summit does not include the 2016 International Permanent Court of Arbitration on the South China Sea issue.

On January 4, the Russian ambassador to the Philippines stated that Russia is ready to provide the Philippines with precision weapons such as aircraft and submarines to establish closer friendly relations between the two countries. Duterte had previously expressed his intention to establish an alliance with Russia.

On January 2, the formation of the Chinese aircraft carrier “Liaoning”, which performed cross-sea area training and testing, conducted formation and carrier aircraft training in the South China Sea. This is one of the training contents of the Liaoning fleet across the sea area.

2016

On December 30, Philippine Secretary of Defense Lorenzana said that it would move the joint naval exercise site with the United States to areas outside the disputed South China Sea to avoid “annoying” neighbor China.

On December 26, the Chinese aircraft carrier formation “Liaoning” entered the northern part of the South China Sea through the waters south of Taiwan. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China stated that the “Liaoning” has the right to free navigation granted by international law.

On December 22, the Chinese state media Xinhua News Agency reported that China began operating civil business charter flights to and from Woody Island in the disputed Paracel Islands in the South China Sea (China’s called Yongxing Island in the Paracel Islands). The first flight took off from Haikou City, Hainan Province on the 21st and landed at Yongxing Airport.

On December 20, the rescue boat No. 510 of the Chinese Navy returned the hijacked unmanned submarine in the South China Sea to the USS Mustin guided-missile destroyer.

On December 19, in response to Philippine President Duterte’s remarks about shelving the arbitration case, Philippine Foreign Minister Yasai said that the Philippines will not “deviate” from the arbitration decision, but it must first establish a relationship of trust with China.

On December 17, Philippine President Duterte stated that he would “set aside” the July decision of the International Arbitration Tribunal on China’s sovereignty claims over most of the South China Sea because he did not want to impose the award on China.

On December 15, the rescue vessel 510 of the Chinese Navy hijacked an unmanned submarine that was being recovered by the U.S. Navy’s “Boditch” marine survey vessel in the international waters of the South China Sea. The US Department of Defense issued a statement claiming that China had illegally taken US government property and demanded that China return it immediately.

In December, the Asian Maritime Transparency Project stated that the Chinese military is likely to have installed air defense and anti-missile systems on man-made islands in the South China Sea. The Philippines said it would not protest China’s “militarization” actions.

On December 9, Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen said that Taiwan will firmly defend its territorial sovereignty in the South China Sea.

On December 8, the Chinese Navy held a high-profile “commemorative event for the 70th anniversary of the recovery of Southwestern Sands” in Beijing. The Vietnamese government subsequently expressed its “resolute opposition”.

In December, satellite imagery showed that Vietnam began excavation operations on the disputed South China island reef Lad Reef (known as the Japanese Reef in China).

On December 2, US President-elect Trump and Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen had a phone conversation that broke the convention.

On November 29, the Taiwan Maritime Patrol Agency held its first search and rescue exercise on Ituaba Island (Taiping Island).

On November 23, Philippine officials claimed that Duterte used an executive order to declare part of the disputed Scarborough Shoal (called Huangyan Island in China) as a nature reserve, prohibiting fishermen from fishing.

In November, during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit, Chinese President Xi Jinping once again met with Philippine President Duterte, reiterating that the South China Sea issue should be resolved peacefully within a bilateral framework and opposing the intervention of other countries or international organizations. Duterte stated that the Philippines is willing to properly handle it through dialogue and consultation.

On October 31, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib launched a visit to China. Malaysia will purchase four patrol ships from China.

On October 26, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and visiting Philippine President Duterte held a summit. Japan will provide a loan of US$210 million for the Philippines’ maritime security projects.

On October 21, the US military once again launched a free navigation operation in the controversial South China Sea, which was carried out by the USS Decatur guided-missile destroyer. The ship entered the waters near Triton Island (called Zhongjian Island in China) and Woody Island (called Yongxing Island in China), but did not enter the reef within 12 nautical miles. China condemned.

From October 18th to 21st, Philippine President Duterte and 250 business leaders visited China and met with Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang. During the period, he announced “break up with the United States” at the China-Philippines Economic and Trade Cooperation Forum.

On October 5, Philippine Defense Secretary Lorenzana said that President Duterte hoped to suspend the plans for the US and the Philippines to conduct joint patrols and naval exercises in the South China Sea.

On October 4, the US and Philippine armies held an annual joint military exercise.

On October 2, Philippine President Duterte ordered the reiteration of the 2014 US-Philippines “Strengthening Defense Cooperation Agreement.”

On September 15, Philippine Foreign Minister Yasai stated in Washington that the Philippines was “loyal” and “cherished the “US-Philippines alliance.” But he also said that the Philippines is unwilling to be taught on human rights issues.

On September 12, the Chinese and Russian navies began an 8-day joint military exercise in the relevant sea and airspace of the South China Sea.

On September 12, Philippine President Duterte said that he hoped that all US troops would withdraw from the southern Philippines and that the United States would be responsible for the local Muslim militants’ unrest.

On September 10, Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc began a week-long visit to China. On the 12th, Li Keqiang told Nguyen Xuan Phuc that China and Vietnam should work together to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea.

On September 7, the Chairman’s statement issued by the ASEAN Summit in Vientiane stated that ASEAN leaders expressed serious concerns about the situation in the South China Sea, but did not directly mention the South China Sea dispute award of the Hague International Arbitration Tribunal.

On September 5, when Philippine President Duterte went to Vientiane, Laos, to attend the ASEAN summit, he said that if President Obama talked about the human rights issues in the Philippines and his extrajudicial executions for drug crimes during the talks, he would “curse” Obama. He also insulted Obama with the Filipino “bitch”. The next day, the White House cancelled the scheduled meeting between Obama and Duterte.

On September 3, US President Obama arrived in China to attend the G20 summit. In an exclusive interview broadcast by CNN on the 4th, he stated that Beijing must abide by international law and that if something is done in the territories of a disputed area, there will be consequences.

On August 31, US Secretary of State Kerry said during a visit to New Delhi, India, that after the Hague Arbitration Court makes a ruling on the disputed waters of the South China Sea, the United States will work with allies to safeguard the freedom of navigation in the waters.

On August 24, Philippine President Duterte said that both Beijing and Manila must accept international arbitration over the South China Sea, but Manila will negotiate with Beijing in an independent manner.

On August 22, the 15th Joint Maritime Exercise of Southeast Asia Cooperation Training led by the US Navy was held in Singapore, involving sea areas including the South China Sea. Countries participating in the exercise include Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh and Cambodia.

On August 18, Indonesia named part of the South China Sea the Natuna Sea.

On August 16, Indonesia vowed to defend “every inch” of its territory and actively participate in the settlement of disputes in the South China Sea.

On August 16, the 13th Senior Officials Meeting of Representatives of ASEAN Countries was held in Manzhouli City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, to discuss the implementation of the “Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea” and promote consultations on the “Code of Conduct in the South China Sea”. The meeting passed the “Guidelines for the Hotline Platform for Senior Diplomatic Officials of China and ASEAN Countries in Response to Maritime Emergencies” and “Joint Statement between China and ASEAN Countries on the Application of the “Rules for Unexpected Encounters at Sea” in the South China Sea”. These two documents will be submitted in September It was finally adopted at the China-ASEAN Leaders’ Meeting.

On August 16, Taiwan’s Minister of Interior Ye Junrong boarded Taiping Island (Ituaba Island) to declare sovereignty.

On August 15, China stated that the G20 would not involve the South China Sea issue, and the United States urged transparency.

In August, former Philippine President Ramos visited Hong Kong as a special envoy of current President Duterte. During this period, he held informal consultations with Fu Ying, former Chinese Vice Foreign Minister, but did not involve the core issues of sovereignty in the South China Sea.

On August 9, Vietnam has quietly deployed new mobile rocket launchers on some islands and reefs in the South China Sea. The Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied the authenticity of this news.

On August 8, a guided missile destroyer of the U.S. Navy arrived in China for the first time since The Hague arbitrated in the South China Sea.

On August 6, China conducted a so-called “routine combat cruise” in the South China Sea, which is disputed over sovereignty. A spokesperson for the Chinese Air Force stated that the Chinese Air Force organized bombers, fighters, reconnaissance planes and other types of aircraft to conduct combat cruises in the airspace around Nansha Island and Scarborough Shoal (called Huangyan Island in China).

On August 3, the Philippine authorities warned local fishermen that they should avoid the Scarborough Shoal (called Huangyan Island in China and Panatage Reef in the Philippines) in the disputed waters of the South China Sea to avoid harassment by China.

On August 2, China stated that it would start exercising judicial power in disputed waters including the South China Sea.

On July 24, Chinese state media broadcasted the Chinese military’s military exercises in the South China Sea.

In July, after the China-Philippines South China Sea ruling, some Chinese took to the streets to boycott KFC stores and Apple products from the United States in order to vent their dissatisfaction with the United States, which they believe is the driving force behind.

On July 20th, five fishing boats sailed from Pingtung County in southern Taiwan to a major island that Taiwan sworn in the disputed South China Sea to resist the narrow landform made by the Hague Arbitration Court, not an island but a rock. Ruling. This means that the island has no right to establish an exclusive economic zone in the surrounding waters.

On July 19, Philippine Foreign Minister Yasai said that the Philippine government rejected China’s proposal for dialogue on the sovereignty dispute in the South China Sea because Beijing did not allow the decision of the International Court of Justice the previous week as the basis for dialogue.

On July 14, Taiwan’s former president Ma Ying-jeou publicly expressed his views on the South China Sea arbitration case, saying that the “eleven-dash line” advocated by Taipei and the “nine-dash line” claimed by Beijing cannot be confused.

On July 14, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam responded in principle to the two civil aircraft requisitioned by the Chinese government for a “check flight” to the newly-built Yongshu Jiao airport in Nansha the day before, stating that “Vietnam retains its legal rights in the East China Sea (China calls it the South China Sea). These include sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (China called the Paracel Islands, Vietnam called the Huangsha Islands) and the Spratly Islands (China called the Nansha Islands, Vietnam called the Changsha Islands), as well as the “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”. Ocean rights.”

On July 13, the Philippine and Japanese Coast Guards held a joint maritime law enforcement exercise in Manila Bay.

On July 12, the Permanent International Court of Arbitration in The Hague made a final ruling that China’s nine-dash line claim is illegal and invalid and China’s actions harm the Philippines’ maritime rights and interests. The Philippines filed a lawsuit against China in the arbitration tribunal in 2013. The Philippine side has won victory on all major issues, and the Chinese side does not recognize or accept this result.

On June 7, the eighth round of the annual US-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue concluded in Beijing. On the South China Sea issue, both sides still have their own words.

On June 7, Xinhua News Agency reported that China will open two more lighthouses in the disputed Meschief Reef (Mischief Reef) and Crossfire Reef (Yongshu Reef) in the South China Sea this year.

On June 5, Chinese Admiral Sun Jianguo, the head of the Chinese delegation to the Shangri-La Dialogue, criticized the United States for causing trouble in the South China Sea without naming names, and criticized the Philippines for using international law as a guise to submit the South China Sea dispute to the International Court of Justice for arbitration. He made it clear that China will not accept or implement the arbitration results. At the same time, he responded to the “self-isolation” of US Secretary of Defense Carter, saying that China “has not been isolated in the past, nor is it isolated now, nor will it be isolated in the future.”

On June 4, US Secretary of Defense Carter stated at the Shangri-La Dialogue that if China continues to engage in provocative militarization of disputed islands and reefs in the South China Sea, it may eventually build a great wall of self-isolation.

On June 3, the US Secretary of Defense who participated in the Shangri-La Dialogue and the host Singapore’s Minister of Defense jointly called for the maintenance of security order in Asia and the guarantee of trade and trade in the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca.

From June 3 to August 4, 26 countries including China participated in the 2016 Pacific Rim Military Exercise (RIMPAC) hosted by the United States.

On May 30, Xi Jinping called the newly-elected President Duterte of the Philippines, expressing his hope to promote China-Philippines relations “to return to the track of healthy development.”

In May, two ships of the Philippine Coast Guard intercepted a Chinese fishing boat in the waters off Luzon Island in the northeast and arrested 10 Chinese fishermen on board, claiming that they had violated the territorial waters of the Philippines.

On May 23, US President Barack Obama, who visited Vietnam, said at a press conference: “The United States will lift all arms embargoes on Vietnam.”

On May 21, the Russia-ASEAN summit publicly mentioned the South China Sea issue. The two sides urge all parties to sign a code of conduct in the South China Sea as soon as possible, and call for the guarantee of freedom of navigation in the sea and freedom of overflight. This is the first time Russia has expressed its position on the South China Sea Code of Conduct.

On May 17, an EP-3 reconnaissance aircraft of the US Navy was intercepted by two Chinese J-11 fighter jets at close range while performing a routine mission in the international airspace of the South China Sea.

On May 17, after reports appeared that Vietnam was carrying out reclamation projects on disputed islands and reefs in the South China Sea, the US State Department called on all claimants to stop reclamation and island construction.

In May, Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou sent a letter inviting arbitrators in the South China Sea arbitration case and Philippine representatives to visit Taiping Island (Ituaba Island), but the Philippines refused. The arbitration tribunal did not give a positive response.

May 10th. The U.S. Department of Defense dispatched the “William Lawrence” warship to sail within 12 nautical miles of the Chinese-controlled Crossfire Reef (called Yongshu Reef in China) to perform a free navigation mission. The US Department of Defense stated that the move is to “challenge excessive maritime claims.”

On May 9, Duterte won the Philippine presidential election, heralding a turning point in Sino-Philippines and US-Philippine relations.

On May 5th, an inspection team composed of several senior officials of the National Security Council of Taiwan landed on Ituaba Island in the Spratly Islands (Taiping Island in the Spratly Islands), including former Chief Executive Hao Bocun, Mao Zhiguo and the former National Security Council Secretary-General Su Qi, Hu Weizhen and others.

On May 2, China sent warships and special forces to participate in a joint military exercise held by the 10 ASEAN member states and six countries including the United States and India. The exercise took place in the coastal waters of Singapore, Brunei and the South China Sea.

On April 29, the United States Pentagon stated that the US Navy’s aircraft carrier “Stannis” and its accompanying ships were denied entry to Hong Kong.

In April, China is vigorously building offshore floating nuclear power plants to provide electricity for new facilities in disputed South Chinese waters.

On April 24, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told reporters in Laos that China, Brunei, Cambodia, and Laos all believe that the countries directly involved should resolve the South China Sea disputes through dialogue and consultation. The disputes are not between China and ASEAN. The problem between. Among the three countries, only Brunei has a territorial dispute with China.

On April 18, Chinese state media reported that a naval patrol plane carrying out an air patrol mission in the South China Sea landed at the disputed Crossfire Reef (called Yongshu Reef in China) airport to carry out the transfer of three seriously ill construction workers. task.

In April, China’s military newspaper “Liberation Army Daily” reported that China conducted a new round of military exercises closer to actual combat in response to the situation in the South China Sea.

On April 15, U.S. Secretary of Defense Carter boarded a U.S. aircraft carrier in the South China Sea for inspection. The “John C. Stennis” aircraft carrier was traveling about 100 kilometers west of the Philippines.

On April 15, the Ministry of National Defense of China stated that Fan Changlong, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Military Commission, had recently led the leaders of relevant departments to inspect “related islands and reefs in Nansha.” According to the Wall Street Journal, US officials revealed that Fan Changlong had arrived in the South China Sea by plane the previous weekend, and his destination was an artificial island near Crossfire Reef (Yongshu Reef).

On April 14, the United States and the Philippines held a live-fire exercise near Manila as part of the annual joint military exercise between the two countries.

On March 23, the Taiwanese government invited a group of foreign media reporters to board Taiping Island (Ituaba Island) and showed that this is a natural island, not a reef.

On March 9, Philippine President Aquino announced that he was planning to lease 5 aircraft from Japan for patrols in disputed areas in the South China Sea.

On March 9, Australia’s 2016 defense white paper emphasized its attention to the South China Sea.

On March 8, “The Diplomat” magazine reported that new satellite images showed that China started a new land reclamation project in the Paracel Islands (Parcel Islands) in the South China Sea.

On March 8, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said at a press conference at the National People’s Congress: “China is not the first country to deploy weapons in Nansha, nor is it the country with the most weapons, nor the country with the most frequent military activities; now everyone They are all talking about militarization, but I don’t think the hat of militarization can be put on China. There are more suitable countries to wear.”

On March 2, according to Philippine officials, China recently dispatched several ships to an island in the disputed South China Sea to prevent Filipino fishermen from entering their fishing grounds.

On March 1, the USS Stanislas carrier battle group of the US Seventh Fleet sailed into the South China Sea.

On March 1, Xi Jinping met with the special envoy of the Viet Cong in Beijing and said that differences should be properly handled.

On February 29, Japan and the Philippines signed a defense technology transfer framework agreement.

On February 23, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited the United States and held a joint press conference with U.S. Secretary of State Kerry in Washington, where they spoke on the South China Sea issue.

On February 23, the Asian Maritime Transparency Project stated that China is building a radar system covering the disputed islands and reefs it controls in the South China Sea.

In February, satellite images released by Fox News showed that China deployed a surface-to-air missile system on Woody Island (China’s Yongxing Island) in the Paracel Islands (China’s called the Paracel Islands).

In February, the United States hosted the ASEAN Summit in California, and the South China Sea became one of the core issues. Obama stated that the claimants in the South China Sea should respect international arbitration.

On January 30, the USS Curtis Wilbur guided missile destroyer sailed for 12 nautical miles into Triton Island in the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea during the “Freedom of Navigation” operation. Within the sea.

On January 28, Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou arrived at Taiping Island (Ituaba Island) for inspection and declared sovereignty.

In January, China conducted a test flight of a civil airliner at the Crossfire Reef of the Spratly Islands (called the Yongshu Reef of the Nansha Islands) in the disputed sovereignty.

2015

On December 27, a local government official in the Philippines confirmed that a group of Filipino protesters had landed on a disputed island under Philippine control in the South China Sea.

On December 24, Japan passed the largest defense budget in history.

On December 10, when two U.S. B-52 bombers flew in the South China Sea, one of them flew within two nautical miles of Kronde Reef (Huayang Reef). China has an artificial island construction project here. China protests the provocation by the United States. The United States said that the U.S. military plane strayed into the airspace near the islands and reefs, and stated that this was a routine training, not a “freedom of navigation” operation.

On December 15, the BBC reported that when a BBC reporter hired a private small plane to approach the disputed islands and reefs guarded by Chinese soldiers a few days ago, they heard a P-3 Orion reconnaissance aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force flying in the nearby airspace. The Chinese navy shouted that the Australian military aircraft said that it was sailing in international waters.

In December, authorities in the central Vietnamese city of Da Nang fined 64 Chinese citizens who were working in coastal cities with tourist visas and repatriated them.

In December, the US Department of Defense confirmed that it would deploy the P-8 Poseidon anti-submarine reconnaissance aircraft in Singapore for the first time from 7 to 14.

On December 1, the Hague International Court of Arbitration issued a statement that it will announce in 2016 the results of the trial in the case of the Philippines against China in relation to the sovereignty dispute in the South China Sea.

On November 28, the Philippines accepted the first batch of Korean-made jet fighters.

In November, The Diplomat reported that China deployed four J-11 fighter jets on Woody Island (Yongxing Island).

On November 17, the White House issued a briefing on the development and consolidation of maritime security in Southeast Asia. The United States pledged to invest US$119 million in the 2015 fiscal year and seek an additional allocation of 140 million in the 2016 fiscal year. Ten thousand U.S. dollars.

On November 17, the Philippines and Vietnam issued a joint statement, elevating the relationship between the two countries to a “strategic partnership.”

On November 17, U.S. President Barack Obama boarded the main battleship of the Philippine Navy during his attendance at the APEC Summit, and once again emphasized the U.S. commitment to the security of the Philippines and freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.

On November 12, the Pentagon confirmed that two U.S. military B-52 strategic bombers flew over China’s artificial islands and reefs in the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea on the 8th and 9th. The US side stated that this was a routine flight and the US plane did not enter within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands and reefs.

On November 5, U.S. Secretary of Defense Carter inspected the US aircraft carrier Roosevelt sailing in the South China Sea and pointed out that tensions caused by China’s expansion in the waters are escalating.

From November 5th to 7th, Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to Vietnam and Singapore.

On October 30, the International Court of Arbitration decided to accept a lawsuit filed by the Philippines concerning China’s expansion activities in the South China Sea. The court stated that it would accept seven of the 15 lawsuits filed by the Philippines against China.

On October 27, the USS Larsen guided missile destroyer into the 12-nautical-mile range of Subi Reef in the Spratly Islands during Operation Freedom of Navigation. China has an artificial island-building operation on this reef.

On October 17, General Fan Changlong, the vice chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, stated at the Xiangshan Forum in Beijing that, even on issues involving territorial sovereignty, China will never resort to force and avoid wiping out guns. The parties directly involved resolve their differences and disputes through friendly consultations.

On October 16, Chinese Defense Minister General Chang Wanquan said at the first informal meeting of defense ministers of China and the 10 ASEAN countries in Beijing that China is willing to hold a maritime “joint training” with ASEAN in the South China Sea in 2016. “Maritime Search and Rescue and Disaster Relief Joint Exercise” to maintain regional peace and stability.

On September 28, when Vietnamese President Zhang Jinchuang, who participated in the 70th United Nations General Assembly in New York, was invited to deliver a speech at the Asia Society, he did not name and criticized China’s unilateral actions in the South China Sea as violating international law.

On September 25, during the US-China summit at the White House, President Obama said that he had expressed to President Xi Jinping his serious concerns about the construction and militarization of islands in disputed areas. Xi Jinping emphasized that China is committed to freedom of navigation at sea. He said that the South China Sea Islands have been Chinese territory since ancient times, and China has no intention of militarization.

In September, the media quoted satellite photos released by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a US think tank, saying that China was building a third airstrip on the disputed island reef Mischief Reef in the South China Sea.

On August 24, the Chinese media Xinhuanet reported that China had completed another exploratory well in the South China Sea.

In August, the Philippines planned to open an eco-tourism zone in the disputed South China Sea.

On August 20, the US Department of Defense issued a report on maritime security strategy in the Asia-Pacific region, stating that China has reclaimed nearly 3,000 acres in the disputed waters of the South China Sea over the past year or so.

On August 6, the 48th ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Meeting and a series of meetings concluded in Kuala Lumpur. The foreign ministers of Southeast Asian countries stated in a joint communiqué that the reclamation of the South China Sea has increased the tension in the region and may also image the peace, security and stability of the region. The Chinese government accused the Philippines and Japan of making “false remarks” on the South China Sea issue at relevant ASEAN meetings.

Starting on July 22, China has launched a 10-day military exercise in the South China Sea.

On July 18, the commander of the US Pacific Fleet, Scott Swift, took a US P8A Poseidon anti-submarine reconnaissance plane to cruise in the airspace of the South China Sea for 7 hours.

In July, the Philippine government decided to open the former US naval base in Subic Bay.

On July 8, the United Nations International Arbitration Tribunal for the Law of the Sea opened in The Hague, the Netherlands, to hear the maritime arbitration case submitted by the Philippines.

On July 4, Japan and Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and other Mekong basin countries held a summit in Tokyo and issued a statement, expressing “notice the relevant concerns” on the issue of reclamation and island building in the South China Sea. However, the joint document for the summit called “New Tokyo Strategy 2015” avoided directly naming China.

In July, satellite photos released by the Asia Maritime Transparency Project showed that China’s construction of the runway on the crossfire reef of the Spratly Islands in the disputed South China Sea (called the Yongshu Reef of the Nansha Islands in China) is nearing completion. The length can be used for military use.

In June, China stated that it had completed the island-building project in the disputed South China Sea, and the next stage will start the construction of facilities that meet the relevant functions.

On June 25, the China Maritime Safety Administration announced that the Chinese government would once again deploy the “Offshore Oil 981” drilling platform in the South China Sea for oil and gas exploration.

On June 24, Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou stated that Taiwan will propose a road map for the South China Sea Peace Initiative.

On June 23, the United States and China formally began their annual strategic and economic dialogue in Washington. US officials said they discussed China’s controversial reclamation activities.

On June 11, US Secretary of Defense Carter urged Beijing to stop artificial island-building activities in the disputed waters of the South China Sea while receiving the visiting Vice Chairman of the Chinese Central Military Commission Fan Changlong.

On June 8, the leaders of the G-7 summit in Germany issued a statement expressing “strong opposition” to the reclamation of islands in the disputed South China waters, but the statement did not make clear Call China.

On June 7, Vietnam’s “Youth Daily” reported that Chinese ships used high-pressure water cannons to damage Vietnamese fishing boats. Three days later, another Vietnamese fishing boat was attacked.

On June 5, the Philippines was concerned that Chinese warships fired warning shots at Philippine fishing boats.

In June, Vietnam negotiated with European and American military equipment contractors to purchase a variety of aircraft to strengthen air defense systems to deal with China.

In June, Vietnam opened the Changsha Islands for tourism. The Changsha Islands are Vietnam’s name for the Spratly Islands, and China is called the Spratly Islands.

On June 4, the Japan-Philippines summit issued a declaration on the situation in the South China Sea.

On June 1, the US Secretary of Defense pledged to provide 18 million US dollars to help Vietnam purchase US-made coast guard patrol boats to enhance Vietnam’s maritime defense capabilities. Obama severely warned China that China’s reclamation and island-building activities in the South China Sea have adverse effects and pose a threat to the prosperity of Southeast Asia.

On May 31, the United States, Japan and Australia jointly declared that China should stop building islands.

On May 30, US Secretary of Defense Carter stated during the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore that the United States has the right to pay attention to the situation in the South China Sea and emphasized that the United States hopes to see relevant disputes resolved peacefully. Later, China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Hua Chunying stated that the US’s remarks were “making irresponsible remarks and instigating divorce” on “China’s long-established sovereignty and rights in the South China Sea”. She said, “The United States is not a country involved in the South China Sea issue, and the South China Sea issue is not and should not become an issue between China and the United States.”

On May 30, the leaders of Japan and the European Union issued a joint statement urging China not to take unilateral actions in its maritime sovereignty disputes with neighboring countries.

On May 29, U.S. officials stated that U.S. reconnaissance photos showed that China had deployed weapons on an island reef for reclamation and expansion in the South China Sea, confirming their suspicion that Beijing was developing these reefs for military purposes. The US State Department clearly stated that it opposes China’s militarization of disputed islands and reefs in the South China Sea. The United States urges all parties that claim sovereignty over South China’s islands and reefs to immediately and permanently stop reclamation and island-building activities.

On May 28, the US Secretary of Defense urged China to immediately stop reclamation and island building.

On May 27, the White House reiterated the importance of smooth commercial navigation in the South China Sea.

On May 23, Biden claimed that China’s actions challenged the principle of free navigation in the South China Sea.

On May 21, the Chinese Navy issued eight warnings to a US reconnaissance plane flying over man-made islands and reefs.

On May 14, the United States will maintain its strongest military presence in the South China Sea.

On May 12, Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam strengthened maritime cooperation in the South China Sea.

On May 11, Australia called on China not to build an air defense identification zone in the South China Sea.

On May 5, the Philippines and China accused each other of building construction projects on disputed islands and reefs.

On April 29, Obama said that the United States and Japan are concerned about China’s behavior in the South China Sea.

On April 26, ASEAN foreign ministers called on China to stop reclamation projects.

On April 21, Aquino stated that Vietnam requested an alliance with the Philippines to deal with China.

On April 18, the President of the Philippines stated that China’s reclamation of seas and islands would affect global trade.

On April 17, China continued to build runways on disputed islands in the South China Sea.

On April 10, Obama stated that China should not bully the weak in the South China Sea dispute.

On March 30, the United States and Japan will strengthen their cooperation capabilities in the South China Sea.

On March 26, the United States challenged the territorial waters of 19 countries to maintain freedom of navigation.

On March 10, the US State Department stated that China’s land reclamation in disputed areas has contributed to anxiety.

On February 27, the United States sent Poseidon anti-submarine aircraft to patrol the sea off the Philippines.

On January 27, the White House stated that the United States, India, and the South China Sea had declared that they were not against China.

Year 2014

On December 10, China condemned the U.S. State Department’s report on the South China Sea.

On November 24, China’s guide to building islands in China’s sea has nothing to do with the United States.

On October 22, China deployed a large-scale deep-sea submersible target array in the Western Pacific.

On October 16, a senior Taiwan official stated that Xi Jinping ordered the South China Sea to reclaim and build an island.

On September 26, Vietnam asked the United States to lift the arms embargo.

On August 11, the U.S. State Department stated that China’s aggressive actions have caused instability in the South China Sea.

On July 15, the 981 drilling platform of CNOOC left the disputed waters.

On June 5, the Industrialized G7 declared its opposition to unilateral actions to advance territorial claims.

On May 31, the United States accused China of conducting operations that threatened stability in the South China Sea.

On May 27, a Chinese ship rammed and sank a Vietnamese fishing boat.

On May 18, China sent a ship to pick up more than 3,000 Chinese citizens from Vietnam. Vietnam threatened to take legal action against Chinese oil rigs.

On May 15, anti-China riots broke out in Vietnam and a Chinese worker was killed. More than one hundred ships of China and Vietnam confronted each other at sea.

On May 14, the Philippines accused China of construction on disputed islands.

On May 12, Kerry called China’s construction of drilling platforms in disputed areas a provocative act.

On May 11, the Naypyidaw Declaration at the ASEAN Summit emphasized the peaceful settlement of disputes.

On May 7, Vietnam accused China of colliding with Vietnamese ships on the disputed island.

On May 6, Vietnam and China disputed the CNOOC drilling platform. The United States says China is provocative about drilling oil wells in disputed waters.

On April 27, Obama arrived in the Philippines for a visit, and the United States and the Philippines signed a new military agreement.

On April 21, the navies of the Asia-Pacific countries formulated the “Guidelines for Accidental Encounters at Sea.”

On March 18, the President of Vietnam stated that the use of force should not be used to resolve territorial disputes.

On March 10, the Philippines strongly protested China’s departure from the Philippine ship.

On March 6, the U.S. Pacific Commander stated that China should prove its territorial claims in an international court.

On March 5, the ASEAN Defense Minister supported the early formulation of a code of conduct in the South China Sea.

On February 24, the Philippines protested that the Chinese coast guard fired water cannons on Philippine fishermen.

On February 20, actual combat military exercises off China’s seas alarmed Australia.

On January 22, China began regular cruises on disputed islands in the South China Sea.

year 2013

On October 3, Xi Jinping did not compromise on the South China Sea dispute.

On September 15, China and ASEAN discussed the South China Sea Code of Conduct in Suzhou.

On September 2, the Philippines accused China of building projects on disputed islands.

On August 15, ASEAN foreign ministers announced that they would urge China to accept the maritime code of conduct.

In May, the Philippine Coast Guard opened fire on a Taiwanese fishing boat, killing a Taiwanese fisherman.

On March 28, the Chinese navy went to the southernmost tip of the South China Sea to declare sovereignty.

In March, Vietnam protested that a Chinese patrol boat used flares to burn a Vietnamese fishing boat. China claimed that it was normal law enforcement and denied that the Vietnamese fishing vessels were damaged.

On January 22, the Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that it had filed an objection to the United Nations Arbitration Tribunal regarding China’s claim for sovereignty over the South China Sea.

2012

On November 22, the Philippines protested against the inclusion of the disputed South China Sea into Chinese territory by the new Chinese passport.

In November, at the East Asia Summit held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, the host Cambodia said that ASEAN countries have reached a consensus not to internationalize the South China Sea dispute. Philippine President Arroyo stated that there is no such consensus. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda warned that the South China Sea dispute may directly affect peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region.

In September and March, members of the National Defense Committee of the Taiwan Legislative Yuan boarded Taiping Island to inspect the garrison’s live ammunition.

On August 3, the U.S. State Department criticized China’s establishment of the Sansha Security Zone as an increase in tension.

On July 24, China held the inaugural meeting of Sansha City on the disputed Yongxing Island. China also announced the establishment of the Sansha Security Zone. The Philippines and Vietnam protested.

On July 20, in order to repair the rift, the foreign ministers of ASEAN countries issued a six-point statement on the South China Sea issue, promising to reach an early agreement on the code of conduct in the South China Sea.

On July 11, a Chinese navy frigate ran aground on Half Moon Reef in the disputed Spratly Islands (Nansha Islands) between China and the Philippines.

In July, during this year’s ASEAN Regional Forum held in Phnom Penh, the Philippines and Vietnam, which have disputes with China, and Cambodia, the host supporting China, had conflicts over the South China Sea issue. The meeting failed to issue a joint statement.

On June 22, China established Sansha City, Vietnam passed the law of the sea, and disputes heated up.

On June 19, China denied that it would withdraw its fishery administration vessel from the disputed Huangyan Island.

In May, senior Obama administration officials stated in Congress that the United States should join the International Convention on the Law of the Sea.

In April, the Philippine Navy attempted to arrest Chinese fishermen accused of illegal fishing near the Scarborough Shoal (Huangyan Island) that China said. The Chinese maritime surveillance vessel rushed to stop it, and the two government ships confronted each other for nearly two weeks.

In March, China detained 21 Vietnamese fishermen accused of illegal fishing in the disputed waters of the South China Sea.

year 2011

On July 21, the foreign ministers of China and ASEAN approved the agreement reached by officials of various countries to implement the guiding principles of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea.

On July 20, four Philippine congressmen, accompanied by the military and reporters, boarded Pagasa Island, the largest island in the Karajan Islands (called “Zhongxing Island” in China), to declare sovereignty.

From July 12 to 18, Taiwan researchers boarded Taiping Island by warship for investigation. Taiwan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that this move is a declaration of the sovereignty of Nansha.

On June 27, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed a resolution expressing its continued support for the peaceful settlement of disputes in the South China Sea through a multilateral approach, and strongly opposed the “use of force” by ships of the Chinese Navy and maritime security agencies in the South China Sea. The resolution also called on the US military to continue to defend free navigation in the South China Sea.

On June 25, Vietnam sent a special envoy to visit China. The two sides expressed that they would negotiate and peacefully resolve the dispute over the South China Sea issue.

On June 21, Vietnam and China each sent a warship to conduct a two-day joint patrol along the Beibu Gulf demarcation line. Since 2005, China and Vietnam have conducted 11 joint naval patrols.

On June 9, Vietnam said that another Vietnamese survey vessel was hit by a Chinese fishing boat in Vietnam’s exclusive economic zone and the cable was broken.

In the same month, the Philippines continued to protest against Chinese aircraft and boats invading and harassing Philippine fishing boats. China requires the Philippines to stop making irresponsible remarks, and claims that Chinese ships are engaged in legal scientific research activities in waters under Chinese jurisdiction. The Philippines announced that the waters around the Spratly Islands will be renamed the “West Philippine Sea”.

In June, US Secretary of Defense Gates said at the 10th Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore that conflicts will break out in the South China Sea if the code of conduct is uncertain. The Chinese Minister of Defense attended the Shangri-La Dialogue for the first time. Defense Minister Liang Guanglie warned countries in the region not to engage in confrontational alliances against third parties.

At the end of May, a Chinese vessel cut the exploration cable of a Vietnamese oil survey vessel in Vietnam’s exclusive economic zone, and Vietnam protested. The Philippines protested against Chinese marine exploration ships and naval vessels entering the Yiluokui Reef-Ami Douglas Beach (Limulus Reef-Antang Beach) to build facilities.

In April, the Philippines submitted a protest against China to the United Nations over the dispute over sovereignty over the South China Sea, and China subsequently submitted a note to the United Nations, referring to the Philippines’ invasion of Chinese islands and reefs.

year 2010

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said at the ASEAN Regional Forum in Hanoi that it is in the “US national interest” to resolve sovereignty disputes in the South China Sea through cooperative diplomacy, and the United States opposes the use of force or threat of force by any party claiming sovereignty. China is very dissatisfied with this.

China declares that the sovereignty of the South China Sea belongs to China’s “core interests.”

Year 2009

In December, the State Council of China announced that it would liberalize tourism in Xisha, and Vietnam subsequently protested.

In March, the President of the Philippines signed the “Maritime Baseline Law” and China protested.

China sent a large fishery administration ship to the South China Sea. Chinese ships and fishermen harassed a US Navy ship in the South China Sea. According to the U.S. Department of Defense, these Chinese ships harassed the U.S. Navy’s in the waters about 120 kilometers away from China’s Hainan Island.

2005

The three countries of China, Vietnam and the Philippines signed an agreement on exploration in the South China Sea Agreement Zone.

year 2004

On June 30, the China-Vietnam Beibu Gulf territorial waters, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf demarcation agreement and Beibu Gulf fishery cooperation agreement formally came into effect.

year 2002

On November 4, China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations signed a non-binding “Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea” in Phnom Penh, promising to use international law as the principle to explore ways to build trust on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

2001

The Philippines expelled Chinese ships in disputed waters.

2000

In December, China and Vietnam signed an agreement to delimit the territorial waters, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Beibu Gulf.

In August, China and ASEAN held a “second consultation” in Dalian on the South China Sea Code of Conduct.

In May, the Philippine army opened fire on Chinese fishermen, killing 1 and arresting 7 people.

Year 1999

ASEAN agreed with the “Code of Conduct” drafted by the Philippines to prevent conflicts in the South China Sea. China refused to accept it but expressed its willingness to participate in discussions on the draft “Code of Conduct”.

In July, another Chinese fishing boat collided with the Philippine ship and sank.

In May, a Chinese fishing boat collided with a Philippine warship and sank.

In March, the Philippines accused Chinese warships of harassing a Philippine navy landing ship that was stranded on Yellow Rock.

China has built permanent facilities on Mischief Reef under the protection of warships. Manila claims that these buildings are military buildings; Beijing calls them facilities for fishermen.

1998

In December, U.S. Congressman Lora Barker took a Philippine Air Force C-130 plane to patrol Mischief Reef and took photos of Chinese warships.

The Malaysian Navy expelled Chinese fishing boats.

1997

The Philippine Navy drove Chinese speedboats and fishing boats away from Scarborough Beach (Yellow Rock Reef) in April, then demolished Chinese landmarks and raised the Philippine flag. China sent warships to inspect the vicinity of the Philippine-occupied islands.

1996

A Philippine Navy patrol boat fought two armed ships in a 90-minute naval battle. According to preliminary reports, the armed ship was flying the Chinese flag. The Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs subsequently stated that it was fighting pirates. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs also stated that this matter has nothing to do with China.

the year 1995

Taiwan fires at a Vietnamese supply ship.

Chinese personnel stationed in Mischief Reef and the Philippine army expelled Chinese personnel and demolished landmarks set up by China in March.

The Chinese and Vietnamese navies faced off in the internationally recognized waters of Vietnam. The cause of the dispute was the oil exploration contract block of Sizhengtan in Vietnam. China claims that this is part of China’s “Wan’an North-21” block.

1994

China and Vietnam have disputes over oil exploration. Both countries have signed agreements or negotiations with Western companies and accused each other of violating sovereignty.

1992

Vietnam accused China of sending troops to a reef in the Spratly Islands. China seized nearly 20 Vietnamese cargo ships departing from Hong Kong during September-June.

year 1991

China passed the “Law on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone” and reaffirmed its sovereignty over the Paracels and Nansha Islands.

1988

In March, the Chinese and Vietnamese navies broke out in the waters of South Johnson Beach (China’s Chigua Reef) in the Spratly Islands (Nansha Islands). The Chinese navy frigate sank three Vietnamese landing or transport ships and more than 70 Vietnamese soldier were killed.

1974

A brief maritime conflict broke out between China and South Vietnam, which was about to be defeated by North Vietnam, in the Paracel Islands (China called the Huangsha  Paracel and Vietnam called the Huangsha Islands). China has since controlled all the Paracel Islands.

In 1953

The government of the People’s Republic of China reduced the 11-segment line to the nine-segment line and abandoned the two lines in the Beibu Gulf (Tokyo Bay) in Vietnam.

1950

The national army stationed on Yongxing Island surrendered to the new regime of the People’s Republic of China.

1947

The government of the Republic of China announced the 11-segment line.

1946

The Chinese National Government sent the warship Yongxing to announce the takeover of the Paracel Islands and named the largest island Wudi “Yongxing Island.”

1932

French Indochina annexed the Paracel Islands and set up a weather station on Boto Island (Chinese name Coral Island).

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Hong Kong

Changes to the HK Exchange : Why shares of Alibaba, Xiaomi & Co. could rise soon

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Washington is considering to throw Chinese companies from the New York Stock Exchange but this in not good for Alibaba & Co.’s share prices, however Hongkong Stock Exchange just announced that tech companies can list on the Hang Seng Index.

For Hong Kong companies that have their primary exchange abroad, there has so far been no possibility of being included in the country’s leading Hang Seng index. Now changes have been decided and giants like Alibaba & Xiaomi might move to the HSI.

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Alibaba, Xiaomoi & Co. soon on Hang Seng?

After 50 years, Hang Seng index will open to companies that have their primary listings abroad or that have two different share classes. As the index operator announced, companies from Greater China with a secondary listing in Hong Kong and companies with two share classes with different voting rights will be included in the index from August with a weighting limit of 5%.

Chinese tech giants such as the retail group Alibaba, the smartphone manufacturer Xiaomi and Meituan Dianping could then become members of the stock index, which is currently dominated by financial service providers and giants like CK Hutchison.

“Local indices such as Hang Seng are not believed to reflect opportunities,” said Reuters Michael Lai, portfolio manager for Chinese stocks at Franklin Templeton. The potential inclusion of the tech giants “would be a reflection of the development of Chinese markets and companies,” the expert continued.

Break through the dominance of financial service providers

The index is currently dominated by finance and  insurers and real estate developers.

The trading giant Alibaba, which is first listed in New York could generate around 13 billion dollars in a second listing in Hong Kong, as well as Xiaomi and Meituan, which are first listed in Hong Kong but have different classes of shares and it could also be positive for JD.com that wants to be listed in Hong Kong.

With the inclusion of major tech giants in the index, the Hang Seng could end its under-performance on other benchmark indices. Hong Kong’s leading index has lost around 16 percent in value over the past twelve months. The Shanghai Composite lost just 2.6 percent over the same period, while the US Dow Jones index lost 3.5 percent and the S&P 500 even 5.5 percent.

For companies such as Alibaba & Co., inclusion in the index could provide support for the price development of the shares, because in this case index funds would be forced to buy shares in order to be able to reflect the funds aligned with the index accordingly.

Morgan Stanley analysts expect passive fund inflows of $ 3.7 billion.

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Hong Kong

For Hongkongers fearing for their way of life, Britain will provide an alternative

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The UK is prepared to change its immigration rules if Beijing imposes its national security law on Hong Kong. ‘It is precisely because we welcome China as a leading member of the world community that we expect it to abide by international agreements’

There is something wonderful about the fact that a small island in the Pearl River Delta rose to become a great trading city and commercial powerhouse of East Asia. Wonderful, but not accidental or fortuitous.

Hong Kong succeeds because its people are free. They can pursue their dreams and scale as many heights as their talents allow. They can debate and share new ideas, expressing themselves as they wish. And they live under the rule of law, administered by independent courts.

With their abilities thus released, Hong Kong’s people have shown they can achieve almost anything. They have prospered hand in hand with China’s economic renaissance; today their home is one of the richest cities in the world and hundreds of mainland companies have chosen to list on the Hong Kong stock exchange.

So China has a greater interest than anyone else in preserving Hong Kong’s success. Since the handover in 1997, the key has been the precious concept of “one country, two systems”, enshrined in Hong Kong’s Basic Law and underpinned by the Joint Declaration signed by Britain and China.

This guarantees Hong Kong’s “high degree of autonomy” with only limited exceptions such as foreign affairs, defence or in a state of emergency. The declaration adds: “The current social and economic systems in Hong Kong will remain unchanged, and so will the life style” including essential “rights and freedoms”.

Yet last month, the National People’s Congress in Beijing decided to impose a national security law on Hong Kong, which would curtail its freedoms and dramatically erode its autonomy.

If China proceeds, this would be in direct conflict with its obligations under the Joint Declaration, a legally binding treaty registered with the United Nations.

Britain would then have no choice but to uphold our profound ties of history and friendship with the people of Hong Kong.

Today, about 350,000 of the territory’s people hold British National Overseas passports and another 2.5 million would be eligible to apply for them. At present, these passports allow visa-free access to the United Kingdom for up to six months.

If China imposes its national security law, the British government will change our immigration rules and allow any holder of these passports from Hong Kong to come to the UK for a renewable period of 12 months and be given further immigration rights, including the right to work, which could place them on a route to citizenship.

This would amount to one of the biggest changes in our visa system in British history. If it proves necessary, the British government will take this step and take it willingly.

Many people in Hong Kong fear their way of life – which China pledged to uphold – is under threat. If China proceeds to justify their fears, then Britain could not in good conscience shrug our shoulders and walk away; instead we will honour our obligations and provide an alternative.

I hope it will not come to this. I still hope that China will remember that responsibilities go hand in glove with strength and leadership. As China plays a greater role on the international stage – commensurate with its economic prowess – then its authority will rest not simply on its global weight but on its reputation for fair dealing and magnanimity.

Britain does not seek to prevent China’s rise; on the contrary we will work side-by-side on all the issues where our interests converge, from trade to climate change. We want a modern and mature relationship, based on mutual respect and recognising China’s place in the world.

And it is precisely because we welcome China as a leading member of the world community that we expect it to abide by international agreements.

I also struggle to understand how the latest measure might ease tensions in Hong Kong. For much of last year, the territory experienced large protests, triggered by an ill-judged attempt to pass a law allowing extradition from Hong Kong to the mainland.

If China now goes further and imposes national security legislation, this would only risk inflaming the situation.

For our part, the UK raised our grave concerns about Hong Kong in the Security Council last week; we will continue to do so in international forums.

Instead of making false allegations – such as claiming that the UK somehow organised the protests – or casting doubt over the Joint Declaration, I hope that China will work alongside the international community to preserve everything that has allowed Hong Kong to thrive.

Britain wants nothing more than for Hong Kong to succeed under “one country, two systems”. I hope that China wants the same. Let us work together to make it so.

Coronavirus

233 Parliamentarians from 26 countries decry ‘flagrant breach of the Sino-British Joint Declaration

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A cross-party international coalition of 233 parliamentarians and policymakers from 26 countries today issued a statement decrying Beijing’s ‘unilateral introduction of national security legislation in Hong Kong,’ and calling for sympathetic governments to unite against this ‘flagrant breach of the Sino-British Joint Declaration’.

Led by the former Governor of Hong Kong, Lord Patten, and the former UK Foreign Secretary, Sir Malcolm Rifkind, the coalition comprises of a depth of expertise and experience including former prime ministers, foreign secretaries, defence ministers, prominent legal and human rights experts, diplomats, Senators, and Members of Parliament.

Lord Patten of Barnes said: “The statement shows growing and widespread international outrage at the decision by the Chinese government to unilaterally impose national security legislation in Hong Kong. The breadth of support, which spans all political parties and four continents, reflects both the severity of the situation and ongoing unified international support for the principle of one-country, two-systems.”

Signatories include three former UK foreign secretaries, two former Leaders of the UK Conservative Party and two former speakers of the House of Commons, and the former UK Deputy Prime Minister. It was signed by two former European Prime Ministers, as well as by the Chairs of the Foreign Affairs Committees of the United States, UK, Australia and New Zealand, leading Green Party Members from around the world, and all the Liberal Democrats in the UK House of Commons.

In the United States, it was signed by the Chairs of three separate House of Representatives Committees, as well as both co-chairs of the Congressional Executive Commission on China, and the ranking member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In Canada, it was signed by senior members of the Shadow Cabinet, leadership challenger Erin O’Toole and Senator Jim Munson. 20 Australians co-signed, and 9 German members were represented. There is considerable representation in Asia including the Chair of ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights. Diplomats represented included Britain’s former Ambassador to the UN, and former Ambassador to the US, as well as South Korea’s former human rights ambassador

Commenting on the publication of the international statement, Senator Marco Rubio, the Acting Chair of the US Senate Intelligence Committee said: “Through this letter, legislators from many democracies are uniting to express their support for Hong Kong’s autonomy and Hong Kongers. Our words must be met with actions and our governments should remain vigilant and ready to respond to Beijing’s violations of the Sino- British Joint Declaration.”

Senator Robert Menendez, the Ranking Member of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations committee, added, “Today we are all Hong Kongers. All those who support and respect international law, norms and behavior, and who support the people of Hong Kong and their legitimate aspirations for their autonomy, their human rights, and their democratic freedoms under ‘one country, two systems,’ have a responsibility to speak out today and make clear that Beijing’s behavior in unacceptable.”

Former UK Foreign Secretary and Hong Kong Watch Patron, Sir Malcolm Rifkind said: “This is the most serious threat to the people of Hong Kong that there has been from the Chinese Government since 1997. The people of Hong Kong need, and deserve, our support”

Hong Kong Watch’s co-founder and Chair, Benedict Rogers said:

“The death of democracy in Hong Kong should be of grave concern to us all. We hope that this international statement from policymakers across the political and geographic divide will send a clear message to Beijing that the world will not meekly consent to the dismantling of the ‘One, Country Two Systems’ Model overnight.”

Joint Statement from 233 Signatories

We, the co-signed, write to express grave concerns about the unilateral introduction of national security legislation by Beijing in Hong Kong.

This is a comprehensive assault on the city’s autonomy, rule of law, and fundamental freedoms. The integrity of one-country, two-systems hangs by a thread.

It is the genuine grievances of ordinary Hong Kongers that are driving protests. Draconian laws will only escalate the situation further, jeopardising Hong Kong’s future as an open Chinese international city.

If the international community cannot trust Beijing to keep its word when it comes to Hong Kong, people will be reluctant to take its word on other matters. Sympathetic governments must unite to say that this flagrant breach of the Sino-British Joint Declaration cannot be tolerated.

Alphabetical list of signatories

Rt. Hon Lord Patten of Barnes, former Governor of Hong Kong

Rt. Hon Sir Malcolm Rifkind, former Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary:

USA

Members of the Senate

Senator Benjamin L Cardin, Ranking Member of the Senate Small Business Committee

Senator Ted Cruz, Member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Senator Josh Hawley

Senator Edward J Markey, Ranking Member of the Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

Senator Robert Menendez, Ranking Member, Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Senator Marco Rubio, Acting Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee

Members of the House of Representatives

Congressman Robert B Aderholt

Congressman Ami Bera, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and Non-proliferation, House Foreign Affairs Committee

Congressman Joaquin Castro, Vice Chairman of the US House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs

Congressman Eliot L Engel, Chairman of US House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs

Congressman Mike Gallagher

Congressman Vicky Hartzler

Congressman Michael T McCaul, ranking member of US House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs

Congressman James McGovern, co-chair of the Congressional Executive Commission on China

Congressman Adam B Schiff, Chairman of the US House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Congressman Adam Smith, Chairman of US House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services

Congressman Christopher Smith, former Chair of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee

Congressman Tom Suozzi

Congressman Ted Yoho, ranking member of the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and Non-proliferation, US House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs

Former Ambassadors

Grover Joseph Rees, former USA Ambassador to East Timor

Academic

Professor Jerome A. Cohen, Professor of law at New York University School of Law, founding director of its US-Asia Law Institute and adjunct senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations

NGO

Garry Kasparov, Chairman of Human Rights Foundation

UK

Members of Parliament

Debbie Abrahams MP, former Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions

Gareth Bacon MP

Andrew Bowie MP

Andrew Bridgen MP

Anthony Browne MP

Fiona Bruce MP, Chair of the Conservative Party Human Rights Commission

Chris Bryant MP, Member of the UK Foreign Affairs Committee

Alistair Carmichael MP, Liberal Democrats Foreign Affairs Spokesman

Wendy Chamberlain MP

Sarah Champion MP, Chair of the International Development Committee

Daisy Cooper MP

Rt. Hon Ed Davey MP, Leader of the Liberal Democrats and former Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change

Geraint Davies MP

Dehenna Davison MP

Peter Dowd MP, former Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury

Tim Farron MP, former Leader of the Liberal Democrats

Simon Fell MP

Rt. Hon Liam Fox MP, former Defence Secretary and International Trade Secretary

Rt. Hon Damian Green MP, former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Cabinet Office

Jonathan Gullis MP

Andrew Gwynne MP, former Shadow Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government

Antony Higginbotham MP

Wera Hobhouse MP

Kevin Hollinrake MP

Christine Jardine MP

Imran Khan MP

Daniel Kawczynski MP

Craig Mackinlay MP

Paul Maynard MP

Stewart M McDonald MP, Member of the UK Foreign Affairs Committee

Gagan Mohindra MP

Layla Moran MP

Kieran Mullen MP

Sarah Olney MP

Tom Randall MP

Rob Roberts MP

Bob Seely MP, Member of the UK Foreign Affairs Committee

Andrew Selous MP

Rt. Hon Sir Iain Duncan Smith MP, former Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Leader of the Conservative Party

Alyn Smith MP, SNP spokesman for International Affairs

Jamie Stone MP

Tom Tugendhat MP, Chair of the Foreign Affairs Select Committee

Jamie Wallis MP

James Wild MP

Munira Wilson MP

Members of the House of Lords

Lord Alton of Liverpool

Rt. Hon. Lord Adnois

Baroness Bennett of Manor Castle, former Leader of the Green Party

Rt. Hon Baroness Boothroyd of Sandwell, former Speaker of the House of Commons

Lord Hannay of Chiswick, former UK Ambassador to the United Nations

Baroness Harris of Richmond

Lord Hogan-Howe of Sheffield, former Metropolitan Police Commissioner

Rt. Hon Lord Howard of Lympne, former Home Secretary and Leader of the Conservative Party

Baroness Kennedy QC of the Shaws

Rt. Hon Lord King of Bridgewater, former Defence Secretary and Northern Ireland Secretary

Lord Ricketts, former Permanent Secretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and former Chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee

Former Members of Parliament

Rt. Hon John Bercow, former Speaker of the House of Commons and former MP

Rt. Hon David Miliband, former Foreign Secretary and MP

Rt. Hon Rory Stewart, former Secretary of State for International Development and former MP

Rt. Hon Jack Straw, former Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, and Justice Secretary and former MP

Former Ambassadors

Sir David Manning, former UK Ambassador to the United States of America

Members of the Scottish Parliament

Ross Greer MSP, Scottish Green External Affairs Spokesperson

Priest

Fr Timothy Radcliffe, former Master of the Dominican Order Worldwide

EU

Former EU Special Envoys

Jan Figel, former Deputy Prime Minister of Slovakia and EU Special Envoy for Promotion Freedom of Religion or Belief outside of the EU

Members of the European Parliament

Petras Austrevicuis MEP (Renew Europe, Lithuania)

Jose Ramon Bauza Diaz MEP (Renew Europe, Spain)

Francois-Xavier Bellamy MEP (European People’s Party, France)

Vladimír Bilčík MEP (European People’s Party, Slovakia)

Reinhard Buetikofer MEP (Greens, Germany)

Katalin Cseh MEP (Renew Europe, Hungary)

Pascal Durand MEP (Renew Europe, France)

Engin Eroglu MEP (Renew Europe, Germany)

Anna Fotyga MEP, (European Conservatives & Reformists) Poland former Foreign Secretary of Poland

Michael Gahler MEP (European People’s Party, Germany)

Evelyne Gebhardt MEP (Socialists & Democrats, Germany)

Raphaël Glucksmann MEP (Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, France)

Markéta Gregorová MEP (Greens, Czech Republic)

Bernard Guetta MEP (Renew Europe, France)

Heidi Hautala MEP, Vice President of the European Parliament (Greens/European Free Alliance, Finland)

Rasa Jukneviciene MEP, (European People’s Party, Lithuania) former Minister of Defence of Lithuania and former President of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly

Eugen Jurzyca MEP (European Conservatives & Reformists, Slovakia)

Karin Karlsbro MEP (Renew Europe, Sweden)

Moritz Körner MEP (Renew Europe, Germany)

Andrius Kibilius MEP (European People’s Party, Lithuania), former Prime Minister of Lithuania

David Lega MEP (European People’s Party, Sweden)

Miriam Lexmann MEP (European People’s Party, Slovakia)

Javier Nart MEP (Renew Europe, Spain)

Lucia Ďuriš Nicholsonová MEP (European Conservatives & Reformists, Slovakia)

Niklas Nienaß MEP (Greens, Germany), Coordinator in the Committee on Regional Development, Member of the Committee on Culture and Education

Urmas Paet MEP (Renew Europe, Estonia), former Foreign Secretary of Estonia

Guliano Pisapia MEP (Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, Italy)

Peter Pollák MEP (European People’s Party, Slovakia)

Michaela Šojdrová MEP (European People’s Party, Czech Republic)

Ivan Štefanec MEP (European People’s Party, Slovakia)

Hermann Tertsch MEP, (European Conservatives and Reformists Group, Spain)

Romana Tomc MEP (European People’s Party, Slovenia)

Hilde Vautmans MEP (Renew Europe, Belgium)

Guy Verhofstadt MEP (Renew Europe, Belgium), former Prime Minister of Belgium

Germany

Margarete Bause MP, Green Party Spokeswoman for Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid

Dr Danyal Bayaz MP

Peter Heidt MP

Eckhard Gnodtke MP

Gyde Jensen MP, the Chair of the Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid Committee

Frank Müller-Rosentritt, MdB

Martin Patzelt MP, member of the Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid Committee

Jürgen Trittin MP, former leader of the Greens and former Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety

Sweden

Joar Forssell MP

Hampus Hagman MP

David Josefsson MP

Kerstin Lundgren MP

Frederik Malm MP

Niels Paarup-Petersen MP

Lorentz Tovatt MP

Denmark

Viggo Fischer MP

Ireland

Senator Ronan Mullen

Lithuania

Mantas Adomenas MP

Arvydas Anusauskas MP

Audronius Azubalis MP, former Minister of Foreign Affairs

Laurynas Kasciunas MP

Gabrielius Landsbergis MP

Radvilė Morkunaite-Mikuleniene MP

Emanuelis Zingeris MP, Chair of the Subcommittee on Transatlantic Relations and Democratic Development

Žygimantas Pavilionis MP, former Ambassador of Lithuania to the United States of America

Slovakia

Members of Parliament

Alojz Baránik MP

Ján Benčík MP

Peter Cmorej MP

Ondrej Dostál MP

Gábor Grendel MP, Deputy Speaker

Jarmila Halgašová MP

Radovan Kazda MP

Miroslav Kollár MP

Vladimíra Marcinková MP

Peter Osuský MP

Peter Pollák MP

Juraj Šeliga MP, Deputy Speaker

Andrej Stančík MP

Romana Tabák MP

Marián Viskupič MP

Anna Zemanová MP

Miroslav Žiak MP

Jana Žitňanská MP

Former Member of Parliament

František Šebej, former MP and Chair of the Foreign Affairs Committee

Czech Republic

Jan Lipavsky MP

Canada

Members of Parliament

Leona Alleslev, Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party and Shadow Minister of Foreign Affairs

Michael Barrett MP, Shadow Minister for Ethics

James Bezan, MP, Shadow Minister for National Defence

Kenny Chiu MP

Ed Fast MP, Former Minister of International Trade

Garnett Genuis MP, Shadow Minister for Multiculturalism & Canada-China Relations

Pat Kelly MP

Hon. Peter Kent MP, Former Minister of Environment

Erin O’Toole MP, Former Minister for Veterans Affairs

Jeremy Patzer MP

John Williamson MP

Members of the Senate

Senator Leo Housakos, former Speaker of the Senate

Senator Jim Munson

Senator Thanh Hai Ngo

Former Ministers

Irwin Colter, former Minister of Justice and Attorney General

David Kilgour, former Canadian Secretary of State for Asia-Pacific and former MP

Peter Mackay, former Minister of Foreign Affairs Canada

Former Premiers

Bob Rae, former Premier of Ontario and Federal MP

Malaysia

Andrew Khoo, Advocate and Solicitor, High Court of Malaya in Malaysia, former Co-Chair of the Human Rights Committee, Bar Council Malaysia

The Hon. Senator P. Waytha Moorthy

Charles Santiago MP, Chair of ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights

Myanmar

U Kyaw Min San, Member of the Bago Regional Parliament and former legal adviser to the International Commission of Jurists Office

South Korea

Jin-Tae Kim, Member of the National Assembly and former Prosecutor (Chief of the Wonju Public Prosecutor’s Office)

Jung-Hoon Lee, former Ambassador for Human Rights

Yanghee Lee, former UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar; former Chairperson of UN Committee on the Rights of the Child; Professor at Sungkyunkwan University South Korea

Kyung Won Na, member of the National Assembly and former Chair of the Foreign Relations and Unification Committee and floor leader of the main opposition party

Wonsik Shin, Member-elect of the National Assembly and retired Lieutenant General of the ROK Army

India

Dr John Dayal, former President of the All India Catholic Union and Member of the National Integration Council

Indonesia

Rafendi Djamin, former Representative of Indonesia to the ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights

Yuyun Wahyuningrum, Representative of Indonesia to the ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights

Japan

Hiroshi Yamada, Member, House of Councilors of Japan

Shiori Yamao, Member, House of Representatives of Japan

Australia

Members of Parliament

Kevin Andrews MP, Former Australian Defence Minister, Chairman of the Human Rights sub-committee of the Australian Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade

George Christensen MP, Chair, Parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Trade and Investment Growth

Andrew Hastie MP, Chairman of the Parliamentary Joint Committee for Intelligence and Security, Australia

Ian Goodenough MP

Peter Khalil MP, Member of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade

Dr Daniel Mulino MP, Member for Fraser

Dave Sharma MP

Phillip Thompson MP, Member of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade

Tim Wilson MP

Members of the Senate

Senator Eric Abetz, former Leader of the Government in the Senate

Senator Alex Antic

Senator Slade Brockman

Senator Matthew Canavan, former Minister for Resources

Senator Claire Chandler

Senator David Fawcett, Chair of the Joint Standing Committee Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade, former Assistant Minister for Defence

Senator Kimberley Kitching, Shadow Assistant Minister for Government Accountability and member of the Joint Standing Committee Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade

Senator Matthew O’Sullivan

Senator James Paterson

Senator Tony Sheldon

Senator Amanda Stoker

Members of Legislative Assemblies

Vicki Dunne, Deputy Speaker, Legislative Assembly for Australian Capital Territory

Bernie Finn MLC, member of the Victorian Legislative Council (upper house)

Janelle Saffin

Former Members of Parliament

Hon Michael Danby, former member for Melbourne Ports, former Chair of the Joint Standing Committee Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade

New Zealand

Simeon Brown MP

Marama Davidson MP, co-leader of the Green Party

Simon O’Connor MP, Chair of the Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade Committee

Russia

Vladimir Kara-Murza, Vice-President of the Free Russia Foundation

This list is updated daily.

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Coronavirus

The G7 must stand up for Hong Kong’s freedom

(FILES) Chris Patten, the 28th and last governor of colonial Hong Kong, stands for a farewell ceremony at Government House - the governor's official residence - in Hong Kong, 30 June 1997, just hours prior to the end of some 156 years of British colonial rule as the territory returns to Chinese control at midnight. China's southern coast prepares to mark the 10th anniversary of the handover 01 July, 2007. AFP PHOTO / FILES / EMMANUEL DUNAND (Photo credit should read EMMANUEL DUNAND/AFP/Getty Images)

Britain should lead the way as the territory protests over the national security law

By Chris Patten

The writer was the last British governor of Hong Kong China’s assault on Hong Kong’s freedom and its outrageous breach of its treaty obligations to this great city are matters of global concern.

More than 200 politicians and senior policymakers from 23 countries from every side of politics have already signed a statement denouncing Beijing’s action. The UK must ensure that China’s efforts to impose a new national security law on the territory are on the agenda for the G7 meeting next month.

After the handover of Hong Kong by Britain to China in 1997, the territory by and large survived with its freedoms intact on the basis of “one country two systems” until Xi Jinping took over in 2013. Since then, Mr Xi has basically reversed policies pursued by his predecessors.

He has reasserted Communist party control and cracked down on civil society and on any dissident activity. He has locked up Uighurs in Xinjiang and has now turned the screw on Hong Kong. Mr Xi has instructed government and party officials to attack every sign of liberal democracy and its values, clearly a reason why he has targeted Hong Kong. His reign has been characterised by mendacity and a blustering disregard for international law and agreements.

He has reneged on promises to the former US president Barack Obama over the militarisation of the South China Sea. Countries that question his communist regime — as Australia has done over coronavirus — are threatened with economic punishment despite international trade rules. Now Hong Kong has felt the full weight of his bruising methods. While the rest of the world is preoccupied with fighting Covid-19, he has in effect ripped up the Joint Declaration, a treaty lodged at the UN to guarantee Hong Kong’s way of life till 2047.

Last year, millions of Hong Kongers protested against an extradition bill that would have destroyed the firewall between the rule of law in Hong Kong and what passes for the law in China. Partly because of heavy-handed policing and government by tear gas and pepper spray, there was inexcusable violence by a small minority on the edges of these huge demonstrations.

Even so, the majority of Hong Kong citizens showed where their sympathies lay by voting overwhelmingly for those who had supported the demonstrations in last November’s District Council elections. Terrified that elections for a new Legislative Council in September may produce a democratic majority, Beijing has decided to introduce by fiat (bypassing Hong Kong’s own parliament) national security legislation that includes laws on sedition and subversion.

It will give China’s Ministry of State Security the right to operate there. With its well-earned reputation for coercion and torture, it will not be there to sell dim sum. Britain must take the lead in standing up for Hong Kong and for honouring the treaty obligations.

We have a political and moral obligation to do so. We owe it to the people of Hong Kong whose only crime is that they want to live with the freedoms they were promised. If China destroys the rule of law in Hong Kong it will ruin the city’s chances of continuing to be a great international financial hub that mediates about two-thirds of the direct investment in and out of China. Many great companies that have prospered in Hong Kong are important to Britain’s wellbeing.

With China itself, the UK has had a large trade deficit for years. Britain needs to have a relationship with China to deal with global problems, including Covid-19. We can trust the people of China, like the brave doctors who tried to blow the whistle on the cover-up in the pandemic’s early stages. But we cannot trust Mr Xi’s regime.

The UK and its friends, starting with the G7, must take a firm stand against a regime that is an enemy of open societies everywhere. If we fail to do this, where will we be in five or 10 years’ time, politically humiliated and morally compromised? Nothing gained but honour lost.

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